Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants
A rooftop photovoltaic power station, or rooftop PV system, is a photovoltaic system that has its electricity-generating solar panels mounted on the rooftop of a residential or commercial building or structure.
Solar PV rooftop system is basically a small power plant at your rooftop. The Grid interactive Roof Top Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) mainly consists of three major components. These are the solar PV modules, mounting structure for the modules and the inverter or power conditioning units. Solar PV modules form an array and it requires a mounting structure to hold PV modules at the required angle for maximized generation. The solar panels convert solar energy in the form of light into electricity in DC form (Direct Current). The DC electrical energy is converted to AC (Alternate Current) power by the inverter/power conditioning unit which is connected to the power grid through AC distribution board. The AC power output can be measured through metering panel connected to it. The 415 V AC output of the system can be synchronized with the grid and the electricity can be exported to the grid depending upon solar power generation and local consumption.
Electrical inverters convert direct current generated from solar PV modules to alternating current. Therefore, solar modules need to be connected to inverters. Nowadays we have smart Grid-interactive inverters. These inverters can produce AC power that matches voltage and frequency of the grid and the power line it connects to. There is another requirement of adding an isolation transformer. For safety purposes, isolation transformer is used to transfer electrical power from inverter to the connected load while isolating the load from the power source. In addition, the injection of DC power into the grid can be avoided by using an isolation transformer at the output of the inverter.
Power generated from the rooftop solar system during the daytime can be utilized fully by powering the building loads and feeding excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. Whenever, solar power is not available due to shadow or a cloudy day, the building loads can be served by drawing power from the grid or DG sets. Smart inverters automatically understand the power situation and always give preference to power generated from solar modules.
The urban environment provides a large amount of empty rooftop spaces and can inherently avoid the potential land use and environmental concerns. Estimating rooftop solar insolation is a multi-faceted process, as insolation values in rooftops are impacted by the following: